For emergency services in Japan, dial 119 in the case of a fire or if you need medical assistance and 110 for the police. Within Tokyo and possibly even outside Tokyo, there will be operators available who are proficient in English and other foreign languages. However, to better equip you for an emergency situation, the H&R Group provides some very helpful guidelines for you on Japan Info Swap. You will find basic vocabulary including how to describe your emergency and ask for assistance, a sample of a phone call to 119, and an explanation of how to state your address in Japanese. For non-emergency medical services, you can find a comprehensive list of English speaking doctors in Tokyo here.
Japan Info Swap has been set up by the H&R Group as a service, to the foreign, expat, and English speaking community in Japan by providing useful and easily accessible information to enhance daily living. Visit their blog, sign up for their newsletter, like their Facebook page, or download their free e-book about living in Japan.